measles

Measles (Rubeola, Measles 9 days, measles) is a highly contagious viral infection, characterized by fever, cough, conjunctivitis (inflammation of the lining of the tie eye / conjunctiva) and skin rash. The disease is caused by paramyxovirus type measles virus infection.
Transmission of infection occurs by inhaling saliva splashing people with measles. Patients can transmit the infection within 2-4 days before rimbulnya skin rash and 4 days after rash there.


Before the widespread use of measles vaccination, measles epidemics occurred every 2-3 years, particularly in children aged pre-school and elementary school children. If a person had suffered from measles, then the rest of his life he will be immune to this disease.


Cause
Measles, rubeola, measles is an infectious disease or a highly contagious or infectious since the beginning of the prodromal, ie the range of the first 4 days after appearance of rash. Measles is caused by paramiksovirus (measles virus). Transmission occurs through splashing saliva from the nose, mouth and throat patients with measles (water borne disease). The incubation period is 10-14 days before symptoms appear.

Acquired immunity to measles after vaccination, the infection is active and passive immunity in an infant born to mothers who have been resistant (lasts for 1 year). The people who are vulnerable to measles is: - a baby older than 1 year - babies who are not immunized - teens and young adults who have not received a second immunization.



Symptoms
Symptoms begin to occur within 7-14 days after infection, namely: - Hot body - sore throat - runny nose (Coryza) - Cough (Cough) - Koplik spots - muscle pain - red eye (conjuctivitis)

2-4 days later the little white spots appear inside the mouth (Koplik spots). Rash (redness in the skin) which feels a bit itchy appear 3-5 days after onset of symptoms. This can form macular rash (reddish rash that horizontal) and papules (red rash that stand out). At first the rash appears on the face, that is in front of and below the ears and the neck next to the side. Within 1-2 days, the rash spreads to the torso, arms and legs, rash on the face began to fade.

At the peak of disease, patients feel very sick, widespread rash and his temperature reached 40 degrees Celsius. 3-5 days later his body temperature dropped, the patient began to feel better and the rash disappeared soon left.

Fever, tiredness, runny nose, cough and sore eyes and red for several days followed by a rash of red pimples on the face and began to spread into the body and there for 4 days to 7 days.



Complication
In children a healthy and nutritionally adequate, measles is rarely serious. Some complications that can accompany measles:

  1. Bacterial infections: pneumonia and middle ear infections
  2. Sometimes there is thrombocytopenia (a decrease in platelet count), so pendeita easy bruising and bleeding
  3. Encephalitis (brain inteksi) occurs in 1 in 1.000 to 2000 cases.
Diagnosis
Diagnosis based on symptoms and a characteristic skin rash.
Another inspection may be necessary: - examination of blood, peripheral blood examination - examination of Ig M anti-measles - measles complications Inspection:
  • enteritis
  • encephalopathy
  • bronchopneumonia
Treatment
There is no specific treatment for measles. Children should undergo bed rest. To reduce fever, given acetaminophen or ibuprofen. If there is a bacterial infection, given antibiotics.

Prevention
Measles vaccine is part of routine immunization in children. The vaccine is usually given in combination with mumps and German measles (MMR vaccine / mumps, measles, rubella) vaccine, injected in the thigh or upper arm muscle.

If only contain measles vaccine at age 9 months dibeirkan. In the form of MMR, the first dose given at age 12-15 months, second dose given at age 4-6 years.

other than that patients should also be advised to rest at least 10 days and eat nutritious foods for immune system increases.

Incubation time
When exposed to illness: Approximately 10 to 12 days so that the first symptom, and 14 days so that the rash appears. Immunisation (MMR) at age 12 months and 4 years. People who are close and do not have immunity should not attend school or work for 14 days.

The recommended isolation period
It is recommended for at least 4 days after the rash appears.

0 Comments:

Post a Comment

Advertisement

 
Text Backlink Exchanges Free Automatic Backlink OverShopping Link Exchange