Tuberculosis (TB)

TB disease is a disease which is categorized in infections caused by bacteria Mikobakterium tuberculosis. TB disease can strike at anyone not to mention men, women, old, young, rich and poor and anywhere. In Indonesia in particular, this disease continues to grow each year and currently reaches 250 million new cases of which 140 000 resulted in death. Even Indonesia occupied the third largest country in the world in this TB problem.

Cause Disease (TB)
TB disease is caused by bacteria Mikobakterium tuberculosis, rod-shaped bacteria and are resistant acid. This type of bacteria was first discovered by a man named Robert Koch on March 24, 1882, to commemorate his services, the bacteria is given the name of the Koch bacillus. Even TBCpada lung disease was also known as Koch Pulmonum (KP).

Mode of transmission of TB Disease
TB disease transmission is through contaminated air by Mikobakterium tuberculosis released / issued by the TB patient during coughing, which in children is generally the source of infection comes from adults who suffer from tuberculosis. These bacteria enter the lungs and come together to develop into many (especially in people who have low immune system), even these bacteria also may have spread through the blood vessels or lymph nodes, causing infection of other organs such as brain, kidney , Gastrointestinal tract, bone, lymph nodes and other top despite the lung is an organ.

The entry into the organ Mikobakterium pulmonary tuberculosis cause infection in the lungs, which occurred immediately colony growth of bacteria that is round (globular). With the immunological reaction, cells in the lung wall trying to inhibit the TB bacteria through mechanisms alamianya forming scar tissue. As a result, the TB bacteria will stay / rest (dormant) as they appear as tubercles on the X-ray examination or x-ray photo.

A person with the condition of the immune system (Immune) is good, these tubercles form will remain dormant throughout his life. Other things to people who have low immune systems or less, these bacteria will have breeding tubercles grow so much. So many of these tubercles are assembled to form a space within the lung cavity, this space will become a source of sputum production (ripple / phlegm). So the people who produce sputum and lung cavity found tuberculosis microbe called tubercles and is experiencing positive growth infected with TB.

The development of TB disease in Indonesia is nothing related to the deteriorating socio-economic conditions, ineffective public health service facilities, the increasing number of people who do not have a place to live and an epidemic of HIV infection. It is also of course have a major impact from a weak immune system / decrease, virulence and the number of germs that plays an important role in the occurrence of TB infection.

Symptoms of TB Disease
Symptoms of TB disease were classified into two parts, the general symptoms and specific symptoms. Difficult to detect and diagnose TB is caused by a clinical picture of the person that is not typical, especially in new cases.

1. Common symptoms (Systemic)
  • Not very high fever which lasts longer, is usually felt at night accompanied by night sweats. Sometimes such as influenza and fever attacks are intermittent.
  • Decreased appetite and weight.
  • Coughing for more than 3 weeks (can be accompanied by blood).
  • Uneasy feeling (malaise), weakness.
2. Specific symptoms (Typical)
  • Depending on which organs are affected, in case of partial bronchial obstruction (the channel leading to the lungs) due to suppression of enlarged lymph nodes, will cause the sound of "wheezing" sound accompanied by shortness of breath weakened.
  • If there is fluid dirongga pleura (covering the lungs), can be accompanied by chest pains.
  • When the bone, there will be symptoms such as bone infection at some point to form a channel and empties into the skin above it, in this estuary will discharge pus.
  • In the children to the brain (brain wrapper layer) and referred to as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain), the symptoms are high fever, an impairment of consciousness and convulsions.
In patients age children if not cause symptoms, so TB can be detected if there are known contacts with adult TB patients. Approximately 30-50% of children who comes in contact with adult pulmonary TB patients gave a positive tuberculin test results. In children ages 3 months - 5 years old who live with adult pulmonary TB patients with sputum smear positive, 30% reported infected based on serological examination / blood.

Enforcement diagnosis of TB
If a person suspected of suffering from or infected with TB disease, then there are some things that need inspection undertaken to provide a proper diagnosis, among others:
  • Direct physical examination.
  • Laboratory tests (blood, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid).
  • Histopathological examination.
  • Chest X-rays (thorax photo).
  • and tuberculin test.
Treatment of TB Disease
Treatment for patients with TB disease will undergo a long process, and it ranged from 6 months to 9 months or even more. TB disease can be cured completely if the patient regularly taking medication that a doctor can improve endurance and body with good nutrition.

During the treatment process, to know better their development is recommended in patients to undergo either blood, sputum, urine and X-ray or x-rays every 3 months. The drug is generally given is obtan Isoniazid and rifampin as basic treatment for patients with tuberculosis, but because of the possibility of resistance to both drugs, the doctor will decide to provide additional drugs such as pyrazinamide and streptomycin sulfate or Ethambutol HCL as a single entity known as' Triple Drug '.


Amaç said...

TUBERCULOSIS (TB) disease, the symptoms of tuberculosis, the diagnosis of tuberculosis ,the treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis treatment
TUBERCULOSIS (TB) Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Tuberculosis disease is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One-third of the world's population faced mikrobuyla tuberculosis. According to data from the World Health Organization, each year about 8.4 million people caught the disease and 2 million people die of this disease. Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem.

How do you get tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis disease is transmitted through the respiratory system. The sick person coughs, sneezes, speech and respiratory tract secretions in the form of droplets, is thrown into the air. Tubercle bacilli in the (germ) found in healthy individuals infected by inhaling these droplets is. Necessarily develop the disease each person who became infected. Hastalandırmaksızın bacilli taken from the body, the person shall retain the form and disease resistance of the body falls at a time. Term risk of developing disease is highest in the first two years. 5% to 5% after the first two years, the lifetime risk of developing the disease is 10%.
People most at risk of infection for the patient in the same environment for a long time friend of the family members and his closest associates. Spoons, forks, cups, such as eating utensils, clothing, linens, furnishings, such as not infected.

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